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Defence Health

Army Malaria Institute

Department of Vector Surveillance and Control

Aedes aegypti


To provide the ADF with the best possible risk assessment, surveillance methods and protection against vectors of disease, and provide advice on the latest control measures available for vectors, especially mosquitoes.


  • Australian Quarantine approved insectaries currently housing colonies of : Anopheles farauti, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes vigilax, Culex annulirostris and Aedes aegypti
  • Laboratories dedicated to the screening and evaluation of insect repellents and insecticides
  • Fully equipped laboratory for the molecular identification of vectors and the incrimination of vector species responsible for the transmission of malaria, arboviruses and filariasis
  • Field sites in Australia for studying arbovirus transmission and evaluating insect repellents and insecticides - Mt Bundey NT, Cowley Beach QLD, Shoalwater Bay QLD and Wide Bay QLD.
  • Field sites in Vietnam, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu for malaria vector and disease transmission studies

Current Research Projects

  1. Vector Borne Disease surveillance, transmission potential and risk assessment in countries where ADF personnel deploy.
  2. Conduct surveillance of arbovirus vectors: density, seasonality and infection rates in military training areas.
  3. Development of ecological niche models to predict vector distributions and the climatic factors associated with species distribution. Such models are useful in predicting future vector and disease distribution under various climate change scenarios.
  4. Evaluate personal protection measures used by the ADF under field conditions, especially topical mosquito repellents, impregnated military clothing, tentage and bednets for patrolling soldiers.
  5. Evaluate the use of pyrethroid insecticides in military fabrics in protecting against nuisance and vector mosquitoes.
  6. Studies on speciation and identification of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles species as vectors of malaria and arboviruses in southeast Asia and the southwest Pacific
  7. Vector surveillance as part of the control and elimination of malaria from the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu



  • School of Biological Sciences and CSIRO Entomology, University of Queensland
  • Tropical Public Health Program, Queensland Health, Cairns, Qld
  • Department of Microbiology, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld
  • Queensland Health Scientific Services, Australia
  • AusAID Pacific Malaria Initiative


  • Defense Warfighters Program , Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Washington, USA
  • Department of Military Medicine, and the Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology. Quy Nhon, Vietnam
  • Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand
  • United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, CMAVE, Gainesville, FL, USA



Brumpton, B.M., B. A. McPherson, S.P. Frances, T.J.J. Inglis and B.J. McCall. (2011). Townsville field training area health assessment. ADF Health 12: 45-50.

Bugoro, H., R.D. Cooper, C. Butafa, C Iso’ofa, D.O. MacKenzie, C-C Chen and T.L. Russell. (2011). Bionomics of the malaria vector Anopheles farauti in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: issues for malaria elimination. Malaria Journal 10: 133.

Bugoro, H., J. Hii, T.L. Russell, R.D. Cooper, B. KK. Chan, C Iso’ofa, C. Butafa, A. Apairamo, A. Bobogare, and C-C Chen. (2011). Influence of environmental factors on the abundance of Anopheles farauti larvae in large brackish water streams in northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. Malaria Journal 10: 262.

Bugoro, H. C. Iro’ofa, D.O. MacKenzie, A. Apairamo, W. Hevalao, S. Corcoran, A. Bobogare, N.W. Beebe, T.L. Russell, C-C Chen and R.D. Cooper (2011). Changes in vector species composition and current vector biology and behaviour will favour malaria elimination in Santa Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Malaria Journal 10: 287.

Frances, S.P. (2011). Rickettsial diseases of military importance: An Australian Perspective. J Mil Vet Hlth 19: 25-30.

Frances, S.P., R. Sithiprasana and K. J. Linthicum. (2011). Response of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus uninfected and infected with dengue virus to deet in the laboratory. J. Med. Entomol. 48: 334-336.


Alquezar, D.E., S. Hemmerter, R.D. Cooper and N.W. Beebe (2010). Incomplete concerted evolution and reproductive isolation at the rDNA locus uncovers nine cryptic species within Anopheles longirostris from Papua New Guinea. BMC Evol. Biol. 10:392.

Cooper, R.D., M. D. Edstein, S.P. Frances, and N.W. Beebe (2010). Malaria vectors of Timor-Leste. Malaria Journal 9: 40.

Cuong, D.M., N.W. Beebe, T.H. Van Nguyen, L.Q. Tao, Chau, T.L., Dung, V.N., Thanh, N.X. Anh, L.N. and R.D. Cooper. (2010). Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam. Malaria Journal 9: 259.

Frances, S.P., H. Bugoro, C. Butafa and R. D. Cooper. (2010). Field evaluation of deet against Anopheles farauti in Ndendo (Santa Cruz) Island, Solomon Islands. J. Med. Entomol. 47: 851-854.

Goodyer, L.I., A.M. Croft, S.P Frances, N. Hill, S. J. Moore, P. Sangoro and M. Debboun (2010). Expert review of the evidence base for arthropod bite avoidance. J. Travel Med. 17: 182-192


Beebe, N.W., R.D. Cooper, P. Mottram and A.W. Sweeney. (2009). Australia’s dengue risk driven by human adaption to climate change. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 3: e429

Bower, J.E., R.D. Cooper and N.W. Beebe. (2009). Internal repetition and intraindividual variation in the rDNA ITS1 of the Anopheles punctulatus group (Diptera: Culicidae): Multiple units and rates of turnover. J. Mol. Evol. 68:66-79.

Cooper, R.D., D.G.E. Waterson, S.P. Frances, N.W. Beebe, B. Pluess and A.W. Sweeney. (2009). Malaria vectors in Papua New Guinea. Int. J. Parasitol. 39: 1495-1501.

Frances, S.P., D.O. MacKenzie, J.A. Klun and M. Debboun. (2009). Laboratory and field evaluation of SS220 and deet against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia. J Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 25: 174-178.

Frances, S.P., D.O. MacKenzie, K.L. Rowcliffe and S.K. Corcoran. (2009). Comparative field evaluation of repellent formulations containing deet and IR3535 against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 25: 511-513.

Frances, S.P. D.O. MacKenzie, A. Young and R.D. Cooper. (2009). Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and arboviruses at Wide Bay Military Training Area, Queensland, Australia. Arbovirus Res. Aus. 10:  46-49.

Johnson, P.H., S. Hall-Mendelin, P.I. Whelan, S.P. Frances, C.C. Jansen, D.O. Mackenzie, J.A. Northill and A.F. van den Hurk. (2009). Vector competence of Australian Culex gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) for endemic and exotic arboviruses. Aust. J. Entomol. 48: 234-240.

Siriporn Phasomkusolsil, Panita Tanskul, Supaporn Ratanatham, Pochaman Watcharapichat, Duangporn Phulsuksombati, S. P. Frances, Kriangkrai Lerdthusnee and K. J. Linthicum. (2009). Transstadial and Transovarial Transmission of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Leptotrombidium imphalum and Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis (Acari: Trombiculidae). J. Med. Entomol. 46: 1442-1445.

Strickman, D., S.P. Frances and Mustapha Debboun. (2009). Prevention of Bug Bites, Stings, and Disease. Oxford University Press, 352pp.


Bower, J.E., M. Dowton, R.D. Cooper and N.W. Beebe. (2008). Intraspecific concerted evolution of the rDNA ITS1 in Anopheles farauti sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) reveals recent patterns of population structure. J. Mol. Evol. 67:397-411.

Do Manh Cuong, Nguyen Thi Hong Van, Le Quang Tao, Tran Lien Chau, Nguyen Xuan Thanh and R.D. Cooper. (2008). Identification of Anopheles minimus Complex and related species in Vietnam. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Hlth. 39: 827-831.

Frances, S.P., L.M. Baade, J. Kubofcik, T.B. Nutman, W.D. Melrose, J.S. McCarthy and M.D. Nissen. (2008). Seroconversion to filarial antigens in Australian Defence Force personnel in Timor-Leste. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 78:560-563.

Frances, S.P., R.L. Huggins and R.D. Cooper. (2008). Evaluation of the inhibition of egglaying, larvicidal effects and bloodfeeding success of Aedes aegypti exposed to permethrin and bifenthrin treated military tent fabric. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 24: 598-600.

Hill, L.A., J.B. Davis, G. Hapgood, P.I. Whelan, G.A. Smith, S.A. Ritchie, R.D. Cooper and A.F. van den Hurk. (2008). Rapid identification of Aedes albopictus, Aedes scuttelaris, and Aedes aegypti life stages using real time polymerase chain reaction. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 79: 866-875.

McGinn, D., S.P. Frances, A.W. Sweeney, M.D. Brown and R.D. Cooper. (2008). Evaluation of Bistar 80SC® (Bifenthrin) as a tent treatment for protection against mosquitoes in Northern Territory, Australia. J. Med. Entomol. 45: 1087-1091.

Nguyen Hong Sanh, Nguyen Van Dung, Nguyen Xuan Thanh , Trieu Nguyen Trung, Truong Van Co, and R.D. Cooper. (2008). Short Report: Forest malaria in central Vietnam. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 79: 652-654.


Beebe, N.W., P.I. Whelan, A.F. van den Hurk, S.A. Ritchie, S. Corcoran and R.D. Cooper.(2007). A DNA-based diagnostic for Australian container breeding mosquitoes. J. Med. Entomol. 44: 376-380.

Debboun, M., S. P. Frances, and D. Strickman (Eds.) (2007). Insect Repellents: Principles, Methods & Uses, 1st ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 495pp.

Foley, D.H., R.D. Wilkerson, R.D. Cooper, M. Volovsek, and J.H. Bryan. (2007). A molecular phylogeny of Anopheles annulipes (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu lato; the most species rich anopheline group. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 43: 283-297.

Frances, S.P. (2007). Evaluation of bifenthrin and permethrin as barrier treatments for military tents against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 23: 208-212.

Frances, S.P. and R.D. Cooper. (2007). Personal protective measures against mosquitoes:insecticide-treated uniforms, bednets and tents. ADF Health 8: 50-56.

Hemmerter, S. J. Slapeta, A.F. van den Hurk, R.D. Cooper, P.I. Whelan, R.C. Russell, C.A. Johansen and N.W. Beebe. (2007). A curious coincidence: mosquito biodiversity and the limits of the Japanese encephalitis virus in Australasia. BMC Evol. Biol. 7:100.

van den Hurk,AF van den Hurk, A.F., P.H. Johnson, S. Hall-Mendelin, J.A. Northill, R.J. Simmons, C.C. Jansen, S.P. Frances, G.A. Smith and S.A. Ritchie. (2007). Expectoration of flaviviruses during sugar feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 44: 845-850.

Sweeney, A.W., N.W. Beebe and R.D. Cooper.(2007) Analysis of environmental factors influencing the range of anopheline mosquitoes in northern Australia using a genetic algorithm and data mining methods. Ecol. Modeling 203; 375-386

17 January, 2012